Active and Passive Voice

* ACTIVE VOICE

  1. Definition Of Active Voice

Is a feature of sentences in which the subject performs the action of the verb and the direct object is the goal or the recipient.

  1. Characteristics Of Active Voice
  • The pattern of active sentence is S-P-O-K or S-P-K
  • Active sentence is need an object
  • In active sentence, as in the structure of the Indonesian, the subject do the work or perform an act. The verb is used beginning with “me”
  1. How To Change The Sentence (from active to passive)
  • Move the active sentence’s direct object into the sentence’s subject slot

Yuki mailed the letter => The letter

The letter is direct object, so move to be object

  • Place the active sentence’s subject into a phrase beginning with the preposition by

Yuki mailed the letter => The letter … by Yuki

By Yuki is prepositional phrase

  • Add a form of the auxiliary verb be to the main verb and change the main verb’s form

Yuki mailed the letter => The letter was mailed by Yuki

Mailed is verb. In passive voice we can add to be before verb.

  1. Pattern of :
  • Present Tense

Subject + V1 + Object

Example : I go to Japan with my parents

  • Past Tense

Subject + V2 + Object

Example : He built a large house in Depok

  • Present Continous

Subject + is/am/are + V-ing + Object

Example : My teacher is giving me many assignments

  • Past Continous

Subject + was/were + V-ing + Object

Example : She was cooking dinner

  • Present Perfect

Subject + has/have + V3 + Object

Example : I have eaten bread

  • Past Perfect

Subject + had + V3 + Object

Example : She had posted the letter

  • Modal Auxilirius

Subject + V1 + Object

– Can = I can play guitar

– Have to = My brother have to save money

– Must = I have to study hard for get scholarship

* PASSIVE VOICE

  1. Definition Of Passive Voice

Is a feature of a sentences in which the object or goal of the action functions as the sentence subject and the main verb phrase include the verb to be and the past participle.

  1. Characteristics Of Passive Voice
  • In passive sentence, the verb is used beginning with “di”
  • Passive sentence is using V3
  1. How To Change The Sentence (from passive to active)
  • Move the passive sentence’s subject into the active sentence’s direct object slot

The letter was mailed by Yuki => … the letter

The letter is subject. In active we change the letter from subject to direct object

  • Remove the auxiliary verb be from the main verb and change main verb’s form if needed

The letter was mailed… => … mailed the letter

  • Place the passive sentence’s object of the preposition by into the subject slot

The letter was mailed by Yuki => Yuki mailed the letter

By Yuki is object. So we change Yuki from object to be subject

  1. Pattern Of :
  • Present Tense

Subject + is/am/are + V3

Example : She is met her best friend last night in the party

  • Past Tense

Subject + was/were + V3

Example : I was bought Japanese novel

  • Present Continous

Subject + is/am/are + being + V3

Example : I am being sent to study in Japan

  • Past Continous

Subject + was/were + being + V3

Example : My cat was being eaten when I got home

  • Present Perfect

Subject + has/have + been + V3

Example : Borobudur has been visited by many tourists

  • Past Perfect

Subject + had + been + V3

Example : Her phone had been repaired by Nick

  • Modal Auxilirius

– Can/could

Subject + can/could + be + V3

Example : He said the documents could be issued within the week

– Have to

Subject + have to/has to/has to + be + V3

Example : My travel plan have to be arranged by January

– Must

Subject + must + be + V3

Example : I must be studied hard until success

  • CONCLUSION

The subject in the active voice always do the act. To make active and passive sentence, we must know the pattern. Besides that, we have to remember of vocabularies (V1, V2, and V3).

  • Source

https://webapps.towson.edu/ows/activepass.htm

 

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